Exercises in Modern English Grammar




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Exercises in Modern English Grammar

А. С. Саакян
От автора

Предлагаемая Вашему вниманию книга "Exercises in Modern English Grammar" представляет собой учебное пособие по систематическому курсу грамматики современного англий­ского языка. Идея написания книги возникла в связи с теми ностальгическими чувствами, которые испытывают многие преподаватели английского языка при упоминании учебни­ка "Exercises in Modern English Grammar", авторами кото­рого являлись Ю.А. Крутиков, И.С. Кузьмина, Х.В. Рабино­вич и на котором выросло не одно поколение учителей ан­глийского языка в России.

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для старшекласс­ников, желающих повторить, закрепить и расширить те базовые знания в английской грамматике, которые они по­лучили в средней школе. Оно может быть успешно исполь­зовано студентами второго и третьего курсов факультетов английского языка. Большую помощь книга может оказать также учителям средних школ, гимназий и колледжей, различных подготовительных курсов. Не будучи увязан­ным ни с одним учебником, пособие может гибко сочетаться с любым базисным курсом английского языка, используе­мым в учебном процессе.

Учебное пособие состоит из двух разделов — Морфологии и Синтаксиса, включающих в себя упражнения аналити­ческого, тренировочного и творческого характера. Большое число коммуникативно ориентированных заданий дает уча­щимся возможность вывести в речь полученные знания и навыки. Особое внимание уделяется упражнениям сопос­тавительного характера, позволяющим вскрыть существен­ные различия в употреблении ряда грамматических явле­ний в английском и русском языках. В учебнике отраже­ны новейшие явления и тенденции, возникшие в системе английского языка на рубеже тысячелетий. Каждый раздел завершается рядом тестовых заданий, да­ющих возможность проверить уровень знаний. В пособии даны ключи к тестовым заданиям, так как их наличие даёт возможность осуществить самоконтроль и само коррекцию полученных знаний. Данное учебное пособие имеет совре­менное звучание, так как построено на основе фактическо­го материала, представляющего собой литературный и раз­говорный язык Великобритании и США конца XX и нача­ла XXI века.

Надеемся, что работа по предлагаемому учебному пособию будет для Вас полезной и приятной.

Who climbs the grammar tree distinctly knows Where noun and verb and participle grows.

Dryden

Parti

MORPHOLOGY. PARTS OF SPEECH

Chapter I.

THE NOUN

Classification of Nouns

Ex. 1. State whether the nouns in bold type are proper or common.

1. The Imperial State Crown of the Queen of England is normally kept at the Tower. 2. This church has a tower attached to it. 3. The English Channel is the narrow area of water between England and France. 4. The main channels had been closed by enemy submarines. 5. You are like a Figaro. One minute here, another there. 6. I've bought a Kodak, but I don't know how it works. 7. In the art circles he was known as a Metsenat. 8. Wellington defeated Napoleon's army in the battle of Waterloo. 9. Wellingtons are rubber boots. Americans call them galoshes. 10. What had happened, became a Waterloo Bridge for him. 11. He is a real Paparatssi in everything that concerns making money. 12. Rita Brown writes like an American Evelyn Waugh. 13. He is thrilled at his new buy: a classic Mercedes Benz. 14. Antony Marshall lives outside the city. Every morning he drives to the City where he works as staff manager. 15. The Red-White-and-Blue Union Jack hung out of every window, fluttering in the breeze. 16. Degas and Monet were her husband's favourite artists, and both were well represented in their

house. 17. He glanced at the list of her art collection. Sisleys, Monets, Manets, a Dali, Renoirs and a Degas. It was a fabulous collection. 18. Carl Faberge was Russia's Imperial Jeweller. 19. — What a beautiful Easter egg! — Yes,it's a Faberge. 20. The two friends bought a Johnny Walker to celebrate the event. 21. Kurt Vonnegut is writing with the half-embittered, half-amused voice of a later-day Mark Twain. 22. Tonight Samantha wore highly polished black Oxfords.
Ex. 2. Explain the origin and the meaning of the following common

nouns. Use them in sentences of your own.

A Dracula, a Cartier, a Sony, a Camel, a Marlborough, a complete Shakespeare, a Reebok, a Mauzer, a Lovelace, a Webster, a Don Juan, a Dunhill, the White House, a Barbie, a Jillet, a Petroff, a Stradivarius, an Oscar, a Walkman, a hooligan, bermudas, a Xerox, a Newton.
Ex. 3. Read and translate the following. Explain the use of the nouns in bold type.

1. The Uffizi in Florence have more perfect paintings than any other gallery on the planet — not just Tintorettos and Botticellis, but the most arresting works by people like Gentile da Fabriano and Simone Martini. Some Caravaggios, "Bachus" among them, were found in an Uffizi store-room in 1916.

2. The Earl of Cardigan gave his name to one of the garments we wear. A cardigan is a knitted jacket that is fastened up the front with buttons or a zip.

3. — Now, how about some Bellinis to celebrate the holiday? — I've forgotten what a Bellini is. I know Bellini, the composer, of course. I mean, I know it's also champagne but what's in it besides that? — Fresh peach juice. — Now I remember! It's a fabulous drink.

4. — Rumor has it that you're suffering from a terminal Don Juan complex. — It's not such a bad reputation to have, when you think about it. After all no man can be a Don Juan unless women are interested in him.

5. Long ago in prerevolutionary France there lived one Etienne de Silhouette, a controller general for Louis XV. Because of his fanatical zeal for raising taxes and slashing expenses and pensions, he enraged royalty and citizens alike, who ran him out of office within eight months. At about the same time that Silhouette was sacked, the method of making cutouts of profiles by throwing the shadow of the subjects on the screen captured the fancy of the Paris public. Because the process was cheap, the man and the method became associated. Ever since, we have called shadow profiles silhouettes, with a small s.
Ex. 4. Translate into English.

I. Какой потрясающий человек! Настоящий Монтекри­сто! 2. Она такая романтичная! Ну просто Наташа Рос­това. 3. — Я вижу, что твой приятель — мастер на все руки. — Да, и ничего не делает толком. 4. Он настоящий Казакова. Почему она его не оставит? 5. — Какие вкус­ные конфеты! — Да, это Моцарт. 6. — Что это за духи? — Это Кензо. 7. На этой стоянке припарковано несколько машин: Мерседес, Хонда, Линкольн, Форд и старенький Москвич. 8. — Тебе нравится эта картина? — Это Пи­кассо. 9. На стенах его кабинета развешено оружие: кольт, винчестер, браунинг, Калашников. 10. Англичанин Ватман изобрел бумагу, которая называется его именем.

II. Ричард Чемберлен купил маленький остров и жи­вет на нем как современный Робинзон Крузо. 12. — Ка­кую сигару ты куришь? — Это Корона. 13. В этом зале выставлены три Рембрандта. 14. Это была современная сказка о принце и Золушке. 15. — Какое очарователь­ное платье! — Неудивительно, ведь это Шанель.
Ex. 5. Match the six common words given below and the following descriptions.

1. Two-piece swimsuits are named after a Pacific atoll on which hydrogen bombs were detonated — a truly explosive and figurative word.

2. The most popular of all humorous verse forms in English comes from a country in Ireland. One theory says that Irish mercenaries used to compose verses in that form about each other and then join in a chorus of "When we get back to town, 'twill be a glorious morning."

3. Nearly two-and-a-half millennia ago, a little band of ten thousand Persians were defeated at the battle of Pheidippides. A courageous runner brought the news of the glorious victory to Athens, and thus gave his name to a long-distance run.

4. A contraction of "St. Mary's of Bethlehem," a sixteenth century London hospital for the insane, has become a word for uproar or confusion.

5. The Pilgrims found in America a wild fowl somewhat similar in appearance to a fowl they had known back in England — a bird that had acquired its name because it was first imported by way of a particular country. Because we perceive this bird as ugly in appearance and voice, we sometimes assign its name to people we don't care for.

6. The inhabitants of an ancient Greek city were noted for their ability to say a lot in a few words. During a siege of their capital, a Roman general sent a note to this city's commander warning that if the Romans captured the city, they would burn it to the ground. From within the city gates came back the terse reply: "If!" The city's name lives on in an adjective that describes spare speech.

a marathon, a bedlam, a bikini, a limerick, a turkey, laconic
Ex. 6. Explain the difference between the following pairs of words and use them in sentences of your own.

1. air — an air

2. beauty — a beauty

3. coffee — a coffee

4. cloth — a cloth

5. dinner — a dinner

6. fire — a fire 8

7. glass — a glass

8. language — a language

9. lemon — a lemon

10. light — a light

11. nature — a nature

12. oak — an oak

13. paper — a paper

14. play — a play

15. power — a power

16. rubber — a rubber

17. ice — an ice

18. stone — a stone

19. study — a study

20. will — a will
Ex. 7. Make up exclamatory sentences according to the model.

Model: competent advice — What competent advice! good question — What a good question!

1. original advice great idea

2. beautiful nature difficult character

3. fashionable furniture big refrigerator

4. modern equipment ancient fortress

5. unexpected money great fortune

6. wonderful music sentimental tune

7. hitting news strange call

8. good progress big success

9. heavy traffic busy line

10. miserable weather nasty day

11. deep knowledge excellent certificate

12. difficult work pleasant job

13. Russian linen linen towel

14. leafy foliage beautiful leaf
Ex. 8. Comment on the nouns in bold type.

1. Harrods has so much to offer. Vintage wines and sparkling champagne, rustic country pates and silky smooth terrines, delicate scented teas and subtle infusions, buttery shortbread biscuits and rich fruity jams, robust pickles and tangy relishes, mature farmhouse cheddars and crumbly stiltons, hams and smoked salmon which melts in the mouth — all presented in traditional wicker baskets or Harrods boxes. The only thing Harrods can't supply is the weather! 2. Good wines are the best buys before Christmas. 3.1 dropped in at the supermarket and bought a few cold meats, and I also made a salad. 4. Fruit juices are ideal in hot weather. 5. My Granny makes four jams every year. 6.1 used to eat toast with orange marmalade. 7. France has an excellent range of cheeses. 8. A set menu in this Chinese cafe consists of four soups. I prefer a Singaporean seafood soup. It tastes and smells terrific. 9. Herbal teas are my favourite. 10. This shop sells fine foods. 11. The finest rums come from Puerto Rico. 12.1 always have a beer while watching television.

13. Can I offer you something? Coffee, tea, a soda, perhaps?

14. Tea is our most social and sociable drink — a part of our daily life for well over 300 years.
Ex. 9. Choose the appropriate noun from the list below for each sentence. Add an article (a/an/the) or plural (s/es) where necessary.

Affection, spirit, information, red, damage, paper, milk,

wonder, left, glass, luggage, wood, cheese, wild, work, water,

wool, salt.

1. Brie and Camembert are only two of the wide variety of ... produced in France. 2. Many Englishmen have explored ... of the Nile. 3. Woodworm can cause a lot of ... if it is not treated. 4. He never really loved her — he just toyed with her ... . 5.1 need ... which will match the other shades of scarlet in the room. 6. "Hamlet" is one of Shakespeare's best known ... . 7.1 didn't know you were short-sighted. How long have you been wearing ... ?

8. He buys ... on the way home to check the race results.

9. Sorry, sir, you can't have whisky. Our licence doesn't allow us to serve ... , only wine or beer. 10. It's a very shy animal and lives in ... ; it's rarely seen in the open fields. 11. This plant is only found in ... of Alaska. 12. To get to the station, you should take ... just after the bridge. 13. The girl in the travel agent's was very helpful and gave me lots of ... about Turkey. 14. Sorry I'm late — some of my ... went missing at the airport. 15. Our dairy produces five different ... . 16. British ... such as cashmere, mohair, lambswool, merino wool come mostly from the Shetlands. 17. ... occurs naturally in sea water. 18. Where are my bathing ... ? 19. The Great Pyramid of Cheops is one of the seven ... of the Ancient World; it's the only one that has survived and exists today.
Ex. 10. Translate into English.

1. Я художник, и я могу оценить красоту. 2. Эта де­вушка — настоящая красавица. 3. Дом сделан из кам­ня. 4. Мне в ботинок попал камешек. 5. Язык обла­дает великой силой. 6. Японский — очень трудный язык. 7. У нее способность видеть будущее. 8. Лимон богат витамином С. 9. Купи лимон к чаю. 10. У него не было (to lack) воли к жизни. 11. У этого мальчика очень сильная воля. 12. Если хотите сделать завеща­ние, обратитесь к нотариусу. 13. Природу нужно ох­ранять. 14. У Эмили очень романтичная натура. 15. Свет необходим для жизни. 16. Вдалеке мы уви­дели огонек. 17. Дания, Голландия, Швейцария славят­ся своими сырами. 18. Фруктовые и овощные соки очень полезны. 19. На завтрак у меня обычно тосты с сыром и апельсиновый сок. 20. Италия и Франция знамениты своими винами. 21. Август. На Сицилии начался сбор цитрусовых фруктов.
Ex. 11. Comment on the nouns in bold type.

1. According to modern standards my family isn't big.

2. My family are early birds. 3. The board consists of twelve people. 4.1 know what the board think of me. They regard me as the spoiled granddaughter of a rich and powerful woman. And the board are very aware of that. 5. This council is responsible for looking after roads. 6. The council have been promising to mend the fences, doors and windows for years. 7. The public stop and stare. 8. "You could join us," he suggested helpfully. "We're a jolly crowd." 9. The government has cut back on public expenditure. 10. Some people said darkly that the Government were behind it. 11. The staff are going to buy a leaving present for their boss. 12. His staff is very efficient. 13. This team plays for Spain. 14. The team are training hard for the coming match. 15. Statistics is the study of figures. 16. Statistics are often misleading. 17. Politics is a popular topic now. 18. What are his politics? 19. The jury were in disagreement. 20. The jury has announced its verdict.
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